Mancini S, Bucchi L, Zamagni F, Baldacchini F, Crocetti E, Giuliani O, Ravaioli A, Vattiato R, Preti M, Tumino R, Ferretti S, Biggeri A, Ballotari P, Boschetti L, Brustolin A, Caldarella A, Cavallo R, Cirilli C, Citarella A, Contrino ML, Dal Maso L, Filiberti RA, Fusco M, Galasso R, Lotti FL, Magoni M, Mangone L, Masanotti G, Mazzoleni G, Mazzucco W, Melcarne A, Michiara M, Pesce P, Pinto A, Piras D, Rizzello RV, Rognoni M, Rosso S, Rugge M, Sampietro G, Scalzi S, Scuderi T, Tagliabue G, Toffolutti F, Vitarelli S, Falcini F; AIRTUM Working Group.

J Clin Med. 2023 Mar 10;12(6):2172. doi: 10.3390/jcm12062172.

(1) Objective: In many Western countries, survival from vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has been stagnating for decades or has increased insufficiently from a clinical perspective. In Italy, previous studies on cancer survival have not taken vulvar cancer into consideration or have pooled patients with vulvar and vaginal cancer. To bridge this knowledge gap, we report the trend in survival from vulvar cancer between 1990 and 2015. (2) Methods: Thirty-eight local cancer registries covering 49% of the national female population contributed the records of 6274 patients. Study endpoints included 1- and 2-year net survival (NS) calculated using the Pohar-Perme estimator and 5-year NS conditional on having survived two years (5|2-year CNS). The significance of survival trends was assessed with the Wald test on the coefficient of the period of diagnosis, entered as a continuous regressor in a Poisson regression model. (3) Results: The median patient age was stable at 76 years. One-year NS decreased from 83.9% in 1990-2001 to 81.9% in 2009-2015 and 2-year NS from 72.2% to 70.5%. Five|2-year CNS increased from 85.7% to 86.7%. These trends were not significant. In the age stratum 70-79 years, a weakly significant decrease in 2-year NS from 71.4% to 65.7% occurred. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age group at diagnosis and geographic area showed an excess risk of death at 5|2-years, of borderline significance, in 2003-2015 versus 1990-2002. (4) Conclusions: One- and 2-year NS and 5|2-year CNS showed no improvements. Current strategies for VSCC control need to be revised both in Italy and at the global level.